Your African Escape
South Africa is a huge and varied country, spanning the tip of the continent from west to east and encompassing many different ecosystems. The western coastline offers rugged scenery overlooking the wild Atlantic, which blends with the calmer Indian Ocean at Cape Point.
The east coast beaches offer excellent surfing and swimming opportunities from safe and unspoiled beaches. Inland, the landscape varies from the beautiful Drakensberg Mountains to extensive wilderness areas with excellent wildlife.
Travel via self-drive safaris, fly-in holidays or guided tours here is usually safe and relatively uncomplicated, the infrastructure is excellent with well-maintained main roads, frequently situated fuel stations and a wide variety of shops and accommodation establishments.
South Africa has so much to offer in terms of wildlife safaris, beach holidays, family safaris, adventure activities, cultural and heritage tours, vineyards, hiking trails, diving and snorkelling and much, much more! One of the best ways to travel through South Africa on safari is by renting a car and taking a self-drive holiday. The Garden Route is one of the most famous attractions, and many visitors begin this route in Cape Town where they enjoy a trip to Robben Island, Table Mountain, Cape Point, Boulders Beach penguin colony, Stellenbosch and Franschhoek wine regions, Kirstenbosch botanical gardens and the many beaches of Camps Bay, Llandudno, Bantry Bay and Clifton.
South Africa is a huge country, spreading for just less than 2,000 km north to south and around 1500 km west to east. The climate is mostly dry and sunny as the majority of the country lies just south of the Tropic of Capricorn.
Three distinct ecosystems can be identified within the country; the vast inland plateau (\’highveld\’), the great escarpment and the narrow coastal plain (\’lowveld\’). South Africa is home to an amazing variety of flora and fauna taking advantage of every niche including the Atlantic & Indian Ocean coastlines, grassy plains and lush meadows and the mountains of the Drakensberg. This country boasts one of the World\’s floral kingdoms within its borders, the only country in the World to do so. The Cape Floral Kingdom is found in the Western Cape and is home to the unique \’fynbos\’ (fine bush) vegetation of which the Protea, South Africa\’s National Flower, is one species. There are approximately another 8,500 fynbos species including many Erica and heath varieties.
Succulent species such as euphorbias, aloes and annuals, can be found in the drier areas of the country and meadows of wild flowers are a famous visitor attraction each spring in the Namaqualand region. South Africa is home to many animal and bird species, including the \’Big 5\’ rhino, elephant, lion, leopard & buffalo. Visitors have an excellent chance of seeing these animals in the many private game reserves as well as the National Parks. Kruger National Park is one of the most established wildlife areas in Africa.
South Africa is also home to an amazing variety of birds, including spectacular flocks of flamingos, many striking Ostrich, coastal waders, plains and forest species.
Historians believe that the first people to settle in the area that is now South Africa were the San Bushmen, around 100,000 BC. These nomadic people lived a generally peaceful and isolated existence until the widespread settlement of Khoikhoi farmers around 80,000 BC. Bantu tribes arrived in the area in the 3rd century AD moving in from the north. Over time, the San have virtually disappeared as a separate race in South Africa; disease brought in from outsiders has combined with genocide on behalf of more aggressive peoples to wipe out the majority of the San. Many tribes have also merged their cultures with others through inter-marriage, for instance the Khoikhoi race has been largely absorbed into South Africa\’s coloured population.
Today there are many tribes living throughout the country, the most prominent of these include the Zulus, Xhosa and Ndebele as well as the Afrikaner and European peoples.
Modern day religion revolves mainly around Christianity but there is enormous variety with around 4000 African indigenous churches, and sub-sects of the Dutch Reformed Church. The Zion Christian Church has the largest Christian following in the country, members wear a Silver Star on a green background and advocate non-drinking and \’clean living\’. Many people in neighbouring countries, such as Botswana, also adhere to this religion closely. As in much of Africa, Christianity mingles with ancestor worship and traditional values.
The Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz first rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1487, and a Dutch settlement was established at the Cape in 1652. In 1688 French Huguenot\’s arrived at the Cape armed with extensive wine producing experience. Their influence is still keenly felt! However, colonial influence did not occur on any kind of large scale until the arrival of the British and the Dutch in the early 19th century.
Development around the Cape area was mainly undertaken with British rule. From the 1820\’s, the Boer settlers were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with this fact, and began to move northwards into largely unexplored territory on what became known as the Great Trek. The first stopping point was an area near the current Bloemfontein in 1838 where the Boers hoped to establish a republic.
The leader of this republic, Retief, approached the Zulu King Dingaan who agreed to allow the Boer to establish their republic here. Unfortunately for the trek participants, the agreement was a trap and all were massacred immediately after signing the land title deed. There followed a revenge attack which left 3000 Zulus dead in the battle of \’Blood River\’. When the Boers later moved into Mgungundlovu and found the deed granting them Retief\’s republic, they moved into this area.
The republic was short lived however, as the British annexed the area in 1843 and most of the Boer population moved northwards into the Transvaal. Between 1852 & 1854 the Transvaal & Orange Free State were granted independence from British rule, unfortunately the politics of the region were constantly unstable with the Boers often at war with the local Basotho tribe who were sometimes given help by the British, adding to animosity between the two colonial powers.
The Transvaal & Orange Free State both depended entirely on cattle for income, and boasted no industry, very little agriculture and small Boer populations. Just as the areas were beginning to settle into workable communities, diamonds were discovered in Kimberley in 1869 and the British again annexed the area, hence compounding existing tensions! The new mines led to a rush of European immigrants and a migration of black labour from all over the country. The Boers became angry that the republics were missing out on the economic benefits of these mines and the resultant unsettled feelings within the British rule led to the Transvaal being annexed by the British in 1877.
Rebellion followed and the first Anglo-Boer war resulted in a massive Boer victory at the Battle of Majuba in 1881. The Boers regained a certain amount of independence and established the ZAR, (Zuid – Afrikaansche Republiek). The situation deteriorated further with the discovery of gold in Witwatersrand, near the present day Johannesburg. More foreign workers and local people moved into the area drawn by promises of work, although these immigrants were not allowed any vote within the communities. The Boer population mounted another rebellion against the British who eventually brought in Lords Roberts & Kitchener with an army of 450,000. Against 80,000 Boers, the British gained the upper hand very quickly and the Boers were forced to give way.
A new kind of war began, with Boer countryside commandos doing their best to cause disruption and chaos within British controlled areas. Since no official army could be identified, the British took revenge by removing women and children to concentration camps where around 26,000 people died before the war was over. By 1902 the strain was taking its toll and a peace treaty was signed which gave power of the Boer republics to the British. Boers flooded back to the cities to compete with the local black population for work. The English language dominated and was made an official language along with Dutch. It was not until much later that Afrikaans was also given this distinction.
The British realised that they had to attempt some kind of co-operation with the Boers and a \’representative government\’ was established in 1906 (not very representative in fact since none of the black population were allowed to stand for parliament…)
The Union of South Africa was established in 1910, excluding the area which is now Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana (Bechuanaland) & Zimbabwe (Rhodesia). The first election was held, and won by the South Africa National Party, a coalition of Boer groups under the leadership of General Louis Botha and General Jan Smuts. Botha became the first Prime Minister.
Repressive legislation was implemented which included rules such as no striking by black workers and increased laws governing the movements of the black population. These laws prompted Pixley ka Isaka Seme to form the South Africa Native Congress in 1912, later becoming the ANC in 1923. In 1913 the Natives Land Act allocated 7.5% of the land area to the black population (approximately 70% of South Africa\’s people). Squatters were moved from traditional land to overcrowded reserves or cities.
In 1914 South Africa found itself at war with Germany, by default in its role as part of the British empire. Involvement on the side of the British prompted the last major Boer rebellion. South West Africa (now Namibia) was taken from German control and became part of South Africa under mandate from the League of Nations following the end of WWI. In 1924 the National Party, under the leadership of the staunch supporter of Afrikaner independence, Hertzog, merged with the South African National Party to form a fusion government. Jan Smuts became deputy to Hertzog, but this joint government was rejected by Dr. D. F. Malan and followers who formed the Purified National Party and became known as the \’Broederband” of Afrikaans brotherhood.
During the Second World War, South Africa\’s economy boomed and the black urban population nearly doubled with enormous squatter camps building up outside the cities. The National Party won the 1948 election on an apartheid platform; apartheid literally means a \’state of being apart\’. Power was held in this way until 1994. Previous laws were strengthened and every aspect of life was made separate, from residential areas to public amenities with each member of the black population being required to carry a pass at all times and having their movements vigorously restricted.
In 1949 the ANC began to move towards open resistance and more physical methods of objection to this unethical state of government. Illegal strikes were organised along with protest marches and public disobedience. As part of a 1955 congress, a number of organisations including the ANC and the Indian Congress adopted a Freedom Charter with a vision of a non-racial and democratic state.
The situation escalated enormously with the Sharpville riots in 1960 when police opened fire on demonstrators and many black protestors were killed. Shortly afterwards, the ANC and the PAC (Pan African Congress) were banned and a vote was taken on withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. A slim majority voted in favour of this and South Africa became the Republic of South Africa in May 1961. At this point Nelson Mandela became the leader of the underground ANC and Oliver Tambo was sent abroad to establish and promote the organisation in exile. Mandela was arrested in July 1963.
The Homelands Policy was brought into place around this time; another separatist policy which was promoted under the guise of providing the black population with their own, self-governed, states.
These \’traditional\’ tribal areas were in fact the least desirable land areas in terms of agriculture, industry or any other viable means of making a living. Often, people were removed to tribal areas bearing no resemblance to their traditional background. No infrastructure was provided in the Homelands and the land areas were incapable of producing enough food to keep the population self-sufficient. Once again, a tiny percentage of the land area (13%) was assigned to 75% of the population. Residents were not allowed outside their homeland without a pass and prior permission.
By 1980 South Africa (along with South West Africa) was the last remaining white controlled state in Africa. Pressure was rising and sanctions were being steadily increased by countries abroad. The ANC and PAC had direct support from black African governments (except Malawi & Swaziland). Between 1977 & 1988 the South African Defence Force undertook some major attacks in Angola, Zimbabwe & Moçambique in an attempt to defend their position. By 1985 the country was under a state of emergency with censored media and up to 30,000 people detained without trial. Foreign banks refused to roll over government loans, sanctions continued to increase and the value of the Rand collapsed.
In 1989 Botha was replaced by FW De Klerk who realised the vital importance of ending the struggles within the country. In 1990 the ANC, PAC & Communist Party were legalised, and Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years. This was also the year of Independence in South West Africa, which became Namibia. An interim government of National Unity ruled South Africa until the 1994 elections, the first free and fair of the country’s history. The ANC won with just under 63% of the vote.
Today\’s President is Jacob Zuma. In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high as the country has struggled with many changes. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of blacks worsened between 1994 and 2003. Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased. While some have attributed this partly to the legacy of apartheid, increasingly many attribute it to the failure of the current government\’s policies. In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. Since the ANC-led government took power, the United Nations Human Development Index of South Africa has fallen, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s. Some may be attributed to the AIDS pandemic, and the failure of the government to take steps to address it in the early years.
Malaria is not present throughout the whole of South Africa, but areas where prophylaxis should be taken include KwaZulu-Natal, areas of the north coast, Kruger National Park and the Botswana & Mozambique border areas. Your doctor can advise you on the best type for the area of travel and your personal requirements. However, taking prophylaxis will not guarantee that you will not contract malaria! The best way to avoid malaria is to avoid being bitten by the mosquitoes that carry the parasite. Only the females of one species of mosquito (Anopheles) carry the tiny parasite, and the greatest incidence of malaria is in areas of high population where there are many people for the mosquito to bite and pass the parasite between.
Mosquitoes usually bite between sunset and sunrise, so make sure that you are covered up during this time! Wear loose fitting, long sleeved shirts and trousers, use a good insect repellent and sleep underneath a mosquito net or in a tent/ room sealed with netting.
If you do develop flu-like symptoms, or feel at all unwell, during your holiday or after your return home, you must make sure that your doctor knows that you have recently travelled in a malaria area. Malaria is not a serious problem provided people take adequate precautions and seek advice and treatment immediately if they feel unwell.
Hospital treatment in large cities of South Africa is good but can be expensive. Medical facilities in rural areas can be basic. In remote areas, air evacuation is sometimes the only option for medical emergencies. For this reason you must make sure that comprehensive travel insurance is taken out before you travel, this insurance should cover any medical expenses, air evacuation and repatriation if necessary.
The water is safe to drink throughout most of South Africa. In the remote areas, purification tablets or bottled mineral water should be used. Plenty of water must be drunk to prevent dehydration. We recommend 2-3 litres minimum, excluding beverages such as tea, coffee, juice and alcohol. Dehydration can cause very serious problems, it is totally avoidable, so don’t let this spoil your holiday!
Pros: Lush green landscape, quieter tourism except for Christmas & Easter.
Cons: Wildlife is more spread out, very warm temperatures in the tropical areas, activities may be interrupted by rain.
Pros: Higher chances of excellent game viewing, cooler, few mosquitoes, great spring wildflowers in September, whale watching at the coast.
Cons: Busiest tourism period, especially in the SA school holidays of July & August, cold mornings and evenings, drier environment.
Our personal preference would be for either March – April, except Easter, or September – October as these times are neither too hot nor too cool and the tourist areas are generally quieter. In March-April the game viewing is usually excellent and in September the spring flowers are riotously beautiful, whale sightings are at their best off the coast and the rains have not usually begun.<\p>
Bring plenty of memory cards and a spare camera battery as these items may not be available in some of the more remote areas of Namibia.
A good zoom lens (minimum 200 mm) is essential for wildlife photography.
Neutral, muted colours such as khaki, dark green or beige ensure as little disturbance to wildlife as possible whilst on game drives or walks. White or bright colours are not advised, neither are army camouflage uniforms or army hats. Normal beach wear such a shorts & T-shirts are useful for the coast, as are sarongs and hats as the sun is very strong.
Neutral coloured casual clothing (shorts/shirts) for everyday wear, stout shoes (with soles thick enough to protect against thorns and for walking), light waterproof jacket for the rainy season, warm jumper/ fleece for winter or for the more temperate regions, warm long trousers for winter, two sets of good casual clothes for evening dining where appropriate, towel, broad brimmed hat, sunglasses, sunscreen, camera, plenty of film & spare battery, binoculars, reliable torch, sleeping bag if camping.
It is also worth noting that if you are travelling by light aircraft or as part of a guided safari, you should carry no more than 10-15kg of luggage in a soft bag for ease of packing.
The South African Rand is split into 100 cents. US$ can be easily exchanged throughout the country, as can Euro and pounds sterling. Traveller’s cheques can also be changed in banks and most hotels, lodges & shops accept credit cards, mainly Visa or Mastercard. You may only carry ZAR 5,000.00 cash on your person, when entering South Africa.
Your passport must be valid for no less than 30 days after your intended departure from South Africa and you must have at least two blank pages in your passport. Visitors from most British Commonwealth countries and some others can obtain tourist visas for up to 3 months at the border. Please contact us for details regarding your personal visa requirements
Cape Town is the social hub of South Africa, bustling with a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, from the tranquil, untouched coastlines to the dazzling city centre, no matter where you are, there is always a reason to stay. Nature enthusiasts will be awed by Cape Towns lavish beauty. Whether it’s a stroll through the rolling, green hills of the Cape Winelands while sipping a glass of chardonnay, or hiking the famed Table Mountain, any feelings of disappointment would only come from the thought of having to leave.
For the more indoor savvy, Cape Town boasts an endless array of entertainment. Try your hand at one of the glamorous casinos, explore every nightclub lining the party capital of Long street, or give yourself time to unravel any stress at one of a number of luxury hotels and spas.
The streets are a pleasure for your senses, with colourful marketplaces, joyous locals and a delicious smell wafting out of every nook and cranny.
If you are a surfer or general beach lover and you plan to venture up one of the fynbos rich coastlines, make a choice between the glassy, tropical East coast and the wild, relentless West. Either way be ready for crisp sunrises, romantic sunsets, rolling waves and some of the best seafood your tastebuds ever had the chance to linger on. Cape Town isn’t just for anybody, it’s for everybody, and we would love to hold your welcome banner.
This section of beautiful coastline stretches along South Africa\’s southwest coast and covers indigenous forest, lagoons and sand dunes as well as some beautiful beaches.
The sleepy town of Mossel Bay is one of the first towns along the route and was first established after Bartholomeu Dias\’ visit in 1488. Trade between Europeans and the resident KhoiKhoi tribes was initiated and today the town\’s history is evident.
The areas of Wilderness, Knysna and Tsitsikamma are favourite stops along the Garden Route and are surrounded by the lush Outeniqua Mountains, indigenous forest, freshwater lakes and pristine beaches. Several walking trails exist in the area including the popular Otter Trail.
Knysna lagoon is an excellent diving and snorkelling site where visitors may get the chance to see the unique Knysna Seahorse before enjoying a trip on the steam train or a meal at one of the many excellent seafood restaurants. Plettenberg Bay, further east along the route, is a bustling resort with lovely beaches and many activities on offer including canoeing, hiking, diving and mountain bike trails.
Traveling the full route offers guests a relaxing and varied holiday with a great many activities and natural features to enjoy along the way.
Stellenbosch is only 20km from Cape Town and the surrounding area is often compared to southern France with its rolling, green hillsides and lush valleys. Many different wine producing estates can be found in the area, most offer wine tasting and some have cosy restaurants offering wonderful meals. The town of Stellenbosch itself has a very last century European feel to it with wide avenues lined with oak trees, a rambling university and many buildings in the Cape Dutch style.
Wine producing began in the region back in the 1670\’s with the arrival of 200 French Huguenots, and much beautifully crafted architecture can still be seen from this period
The nearby towns of Franschoek and Paarl are equally picturesque with steep, winding passes leading to nature reserves and secluded wine farms where visitors can sip a particularly good vintage whilst looking out across the surrounding valleys.
Swakopmund is a fascinating and intriguing resort town, complete with German architecture, monuments, historic buildings, well-maintained gardens, palm tree lined avenues, coffee bars and great seafood restaurants. Temperatures rarely drop below 15C and rainfall is practically zero, however, the town is subjected to 9 months of morning fog each year. These damp and grey conditions often result in cool temperatures persisting for the whole day, but this mist band, stretching up to 30km inland, gives water and life to the desert plants & animals and sustains 80 types of lichen, as well as the unique Welwitschia plants. The many ingenious adaptations to water collection, like the Tok-Tokkie beetle which condenses vapour on its’ raised back, make for fascinating walks and drives in the ‘Moon Landscape’ or ‘Welwitschia Drive’, located close to the town. Please ask us for advice on restaurants, the more popular ones should be booked in advance and we are happy to do this for you.
There are many adventure activities on offer including sand-boarding (lie down or stand up), tandem sky-diving, fishing or quad biking which can be arranged prior to arrival. We can also recommend some excellent day trips including one which visits the marine sanctuary of Sandwich Harbour, a unique environment comprising towering dunes, a freshwater lagoon and the wild Atlantic Ocean. Alternatively, a half day catamaran cruise from Walvis Bay may offer the opportunity to see dolphins, fur seals and many species of marine birds, as well as enjoying some sparkling wine and local oysters on board. Other half day trips which are a lot of fun include the Living Desert tour which takes you into the dunes near to Swakopmund, in search of uniquely adapted creepy crawlies, kayaking with seals from Pelican Point in Walvis Bay, or a specialist birding trip in the area. Some activities can be booked at the last minute, but we recommend booking in advance to avoid disappointment.
There are also some very interesting attractions in the town itself that you may wish to visit. The Crystal Gallery has displays of Namibia’s mineral wealth, and an area where kids (or adults!) can collect a bag full of semi-precious stones. The National Marine Aquarium only displays indigenous Atlantic Ocean species and has a wide variety of fish, some sharks, rays and smaller inhabitants of the rich Benguela waters. The Snake Park houses a fascinating display of Namibian snake species as well as some confiscated exotics, and the Swakopmund Museum near to the main beach offers an interesting insight into the history of this town.
This mountainous area of Namibia is situated between the extreme desert aridity of the skeleton coast and the central plateau. Damaraland offers spectacular scenery and a variety of attractions ranging from fascinating geological formations to unique vegetation and the only UNESCO world heritage site in Namibia, the largest collection of ancient rock art in Southern Africa. The Petrified Forest can be found a few kilometres west of Khorixas and is the final resting place for a collection of huge, fossilised tree trunks. These trees were once part of an ancient forest and are thought to have been washed down from higher ground by floods.
Around fifty trees can be seen and are thought to be around 200 million years old. Most are members of the gymnosperm family. Local guides escort visitors around an organised circuit and share their knowledge of this unique landscape feature. Twyfelfontein is located a little further west of the Petrified Forest, the name means ‘doubtful fountain’ and is so called due to the unreliable water supply. It is yet another example of Namibia’s stunning scenery and also contains what is said to be the largest collection of rock art in Southern Africa. The majority of art consists of rock etchings made by using stone chisels to cut through the hard outer crust of the local sandstone. Most of the work dates back around 6000 years and was probably undertaken by San hunters. Many of the huge boulders used as a surface for these ancient pieces of art have subsequently moved from their original resting places and it is quite possible that many more etchings lie beneath rocks overturned by thousands of years of natural disturbance.
More rock paintings can be seen at the Brandberg Mountains, north of Uis. This is Namibia’s highest mountain at 2573m and is strewn with pottery fragments and stone tools. The famous ‘white lady’ painting can be seen here, located in a protective shelter on the mountainside. This specific painting is around 40cm high and due to its unusual colour, extensive debate on its origin has taken place. Some have put forward the view that the painting represents a San spirit, some more far-fetched hypotheses are that it depicts an alien or a Caucasian time traveller! Whatever the origin, it is a thought provoking piece of ancient art which, although never satisfactorily dated, could be part of a frieze painted as long as 16,000 years ago. The Brandberg is also known as ‘Fire Mountain’, so named because the western face glows a vivid and beautiful red in the face of the setting sun.
A 12km long volcanic ridge can be seen just south east of Twyfelfontein. Known as Burnt Mountain, this ridge looks very much as though a raging fire has decimated the area. Although very little grows here, the rocks become alive during sunrise and sunset when the whole area glows a burnt umber colour.
Sossusvlei and Sesriem present one of the most spectacular images of Namibia. Sesriem means ‘six thongs’ and refers to the Sesriem canyon, the water at the bottom of which could be reached by lowering a bucket on a length of six leather oxen thongs. Sesriem Canyon is located close to the Sossusvlei National Park campsite and is relatively small but a perfect destination for a Namibia Desert Safari.
Sossusvlei literally means ‘saucer pan’ and is a shallow, dry pan located 60km from the campsite and surrounded by high, red coloured dunes shaped into spectacular forms.
In occasional years of high rainfall, the pan is flooded with a shallow layer of fresh water, causing the desert to bloom and photographers to flock to the area.
Here the sand is at its reddest and the dunes are higher than anywhere else in the Namib, some climbing up to 300m high. Sunset and sunrise are spectacular and it is well worth exploring the area at this time of day to experience the fantastic colours and light which floods the desert landscape. Guided walking trails can be arranged in this area as well as the nearby extensive and beautiful Namib Rand Nature Reserve.
Etosha National Park is the third largest in the world, covers more than 20,000 km2 and is home to 340 bird species and 114 mammals.
The main area of the Park is covered by a vast salt pan which originated 12 million years ago as a shallow lake fed by the Kunene River. Eventually the lake dried up as a result of climatic conditions and volcanic activity in the area, and the pan is now only occasionally covered in water. When this happens the usually dry expanse becomes a riot of colour as the area becomes a haven for flamingos.
The pan is not accessible to visitors, but the surrounding, flat bushveld is dotted with many waterholes which are easily reached via the network of well-maintained gravel roads.
The vegetation is dominated by mopane trees and sparse shrubs. In the western part of the park is the strange ‘haunted forest’ of Moringa ovalifolia trees; looking as though they have been planted upside down with their roots reaching up into the clear skies, they offer a mysterious ambience to the area.